The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, which begins in urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells are transitional cells, which are able to change shape and stretch when the bladder is full. This type of cancer is also called urothelial carcinoma. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells lining the bladder) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for bladder cancer. Risk factors for bladder cancer include:
Although urinary bladder cancer incidence rates are much higher in whites than in African Americans, mortality rates are only slightly higher, due in large part to the later stage at diagnosis among African Americans. Overall, men are about four times more likely than women to be diagnosed with bladder cancer.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by bladder cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
The most common sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is easier to treat. Although there is no standard or routine screening test for bladder cancer, cystoscopy (a procedure used to see inside the urinary bladder and urethra) and urine cytology (a test to look for abnormal cells in urine) are used in patients who have previously had bladder cancer.
Tests and Detection:
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. There are different types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer.
Four types of standard treatment are used:
To learn more about bladder cancer, please visit The National Cancer Institute .
http://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder http://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/patient/bladder-treatment-pdq http://www.cancer.gov/research/progress/snapshots/bladder http://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/patient/bladder-treatment-pdq http://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/patient/bladder-treatment-pdq#section/_134
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